You MUST use this outline for the format of your Week 1 Paper. If you do not know how to write a research essay please see the “Help with Writing” announcement. Remember that you want to identify what qualitative and quantitative research is and be sure to use critical thinking to explain how you know which type of research the article you chose is by illustrating the definition with information from the article.
I. Introduction –
a.Who are the authors and title of your article?
b.What is the question and the hypothesis present within this research article?
II. Area of Psychology
III. Ethical Issues
a. What APA Research Ethical Guidelines were a risk in this study?
b. How did the researchers ensure that they ethical guidelines were not violated?
Research Article Identification
Read each of the abstracts for the articles listed below and then select one of them to be the full article that you will use for all the written assignments in this course. The abstracts and full-text versions of the articles can be accessed through the databases in the Ashford University Library. On the Library home page, use FindIt@AU to search most of the databases simultaneously. The article choices are:
- Cruwys, T., South, E. I., Greenaway, K. H., & Haslam, S. A. (2015). Social identity reduces depression by fostering positive attributions. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6(1), 65-74. doi:10.1177/1948550614543309
- Deliens, T., Clarys, P., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Deforche, B. (2014). Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: A qualitative study using focus group discussions. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 53. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-53
- Ko, S. J., Sadler, M. S., & Galinsky, A. D. (2015). The sound of power: Conveying and detecting hierarchical rank through voice. Psychological Science, 26(1), 3-14. doi:10.1177/0956797614553009
- McCann, T. V., & Lubman, D. I. (2012). Young people with depression and their satisfaction with the quality of care they receive from a primary care youth mental health service: A qualitative study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(15/16), 2179-2187. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04086.x
- Murphy, D., Hunt, E., Luzon, O., & Greenberg, N. (2014). Exploring positive pathways to care for members of the UK armed forces receiving treatment for PTSD: A qualitative study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5, 1-8. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.21759
- Patrick, V. M., & Hagtvedt, H. (2012). “I don’t” versus “I can’t”: When empowered refusal motivates goal-directed behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 371-381. doi:10.1086/663212
If you have questions about how to search for articles, you may refer to the tutorial titled, “Finding an Article When You Have the Citation”, which is available within the Ashford University Library. In addition, the Library has 24/7 chat to assist you with reference questions.
After making your selection, read the “Methods” section within the article. Write a two- to- three page paper (excluding title and reference pages) that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center, presenting the information listed below. Your paper should begin with an introduction paragraph (including a thesis statement) and end with a concluding paragraph reaffirming the thesis and summarizing the major points made in the body of the paper. All sources used in the paper (such as the chosen article and the textbook) must be cited in the body of the paper and listed as references on a separate page at the end.
The body of your paper must contain the following criteria:
- Identify the study by title and authors.
- Determine what question(s) the authors are trying to answer by doing this research.
- Associate the chosen study with a specific research area of psychology based on the information on research area in Chapter 1 of your course textbook. Explain your reasoning.
- Summarize ethical issues which were addressed in the article and analyze the ethical principles applied. Can you discern additional ethical issues that apply but were not mentioned?
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
Using the databases and the Research Methods research guide in the Ashford University Library, locate and read peer-reviewed articles about the features of qualitative research and quantitative research. Also read the full text of the study you selected in Week One. Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative research methods and terminology. Specify which approach is used in the study. Explain whether the study is qualitative or quantitative by citing specific clues from the article, such as sample size, data collection techniques, the nature of the data collected, or the data analysis techniques used. Using information in the instructor guidance and Chapter 2 of the textbook, determine whether the research study you selected is non-experimental or experimental. Explain your reasoning.
Your paper must be a minimum of four pages (excluding title page) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. All sources must be documented in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. For more information about APA style, please see the Ashford Writing Center.
Critique of a Research Study
Reread the full text of the study you selected in Week One. Evaluate the study and write a critique, using the textbook and relevant journal articles to support your analysis of the study. Use the following section headings and content in your paper.
- State the purpose of the paper. Clearly identify the study being critiqued, by title and authors. Summarize the research question, hypothesis (if a quantitative study), and background information on the topic from the study’s literature review. Did the authors present a well-balanced summary of current knowledge about the topic? Is there any apparent bias in the literature review?
- Differentiate the research design (experimental or non-experimental) and approach (qualitative or quantitative), sampling method, and data collection methods. Indicate the sample size, variables and measures (if a quantitative study), statistical tests (if a quantitative study), coding and analysis procedures (if a qualitative study), and any assumptions made by the researchers. Were the procedures chosen appropriate for the study? What alternative methods would you suggest?
- Ethical Aspects
- Analyze ethical issues pertaining to this study. Did the researchers explicitly address ethical issues in the article? If not, was there evidence in the report that the participants’ safety and confidentiality were protected? Was an approval process by an Institutional Review Board or similar ethics review committee mentioned? Were any of the practices ethically questionable (deception, coercion, etc.)?
- Present a summary of the results of the analysis performed in the study. Did the authors keep their interpretations and conclusions separate from the analysis results (evidence)?
- Discussion and Conclusion
- Analyze and critique the conclusions drawn by the researchers. Do the conclusions follow logically from the results of the analysis? Evaluate the overall efficacy of the research study by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of aspects of its design and implementation. Identify the limitations noted by the researchers and add any limitations you see that were not mentioned in the article. Describe the directions for future research proposed by the authors and evaluate their appropriateness. Recommend at least one idea for a future study that will overcome some of the limitations of this study. Keep in mind that this suggested future study will serve as the basis for your Final Paper.
Your paper should be four to six pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Utilize a minimum of five sources that were published within the last 10 years and are documented in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. These sources should include the article being critiqued, at least three peer-reviewed journal articles, and the course textbook. It is recommended that you visit the Research Methods research guide in the Ashford University Library for suggested articles, as well as searching for articles in the Library’s databases.
Read the instructions for the final paper to determine the kinds of articles you will need to use as references. Also read the Example Research Proposal provided in the course materials to help you visualize your final paper. Search the Ashford University Library’s databases and the Research Methods research guide to find appropriate peer-reviewed sources for your proposal. Read the selected articles and reread relevant sections of the textbook and the full text of the study you have been working with throughout the course. Using the Sample Annotated Bibliography information and example from the Writing Center as a guide, create an annotated bibliography of the sources you will use in your final research proposal.
The references in the annotated bibliography must be listed in alphabetical order, formatted in APA style, and published within the past 10 years. All selected sources other than the textbook must be available in full text in the Ashford University Library. After each reference, insert two paragraphs. The first paragraph should summarize the main points of the source, in your own words. Do not use any quotations or verbatim wording from the source for this assignment. In the second paragraph, explain how you will use the source to support your research proposal.
For this assignment, a title page in APA format is required but it is not necessary to include a separate reference page, because the paper itself is the reference page with additional information inserted. If you do include a separate page of references, be aware that it will not be counted towards the required page count. Your paper must be a minimum of four pages (excluding title page) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Final Paper: Research Proposal
Review the Example Research Proposal provided in the course materials. Design a research study on the topic of the study selected in Week One and critiqued in Week Three. Your design should seek to resolve the limitations you identified in the study you critiqued. Your paper must address all of the components required in the “Methods” section of a research proposal:
- State the research question and/or hypothesis.
- Specify the approach (qualitative or quantitative), research design, sampling strategy, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques to be used.
- If the design is quantitative, also describe the variables, measures, and statistical tests you would use.
- Analyze ethical issues that may arise and explain how you would handle these issues.
Your Final Paper must be six to eight pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Utilize a minimum of six peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last 10 years, in addition to the textbook, that are documented in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The sources should consist of the following:
- One source should be the article you critiqued in the Week Three assignment.
- At least two sources should be about the research methodology you have chosen for your study.
- At least one source should be on ethical issues in research.
- The remaining sources may be about anything pertinent to your study.
In accordance with APA style, all references listed must be cited in the body of the paper.
Required Sections and Subsections (use these headings in your paper)
- Introduction – Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present your research question and/or hypothesis.
- Literature Review – Summarize the current state of knowledge on your topic, making reference to the findings of previous research studies (including the one you critiqued in Week Three). Briefly analyze and critique these studies and mention the research methods that have previously been used to study the topic. State whether your proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach using methods that have not been used before. Be sure to properly cite all of your sources in APA style.
- Design – Indicate whether your proposed study is qualitative or quantitative in approach. Identify the specific research design, using one of the designs we have studied in Weeks Three through Five, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate your chosen design and explain why you believe this design is appropriate for the topic and how it will provide the information you need to answer the research question. Cite sources on research methodology to support your choices.
- Participants – Identify and describe the sampling strategy you would use to recruit participants for your study. Estimate the number of participants you would need and explain why your sampling method is appropriate for your research design and approach.
- Procedure/Measures – Apply the scientific method by describing the steps you would use in carrying out your study. Indicate whether you will use any kind of test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument. If using an existing published instrument, provide a brief description and cite your source. If you are creating a questionnaire, survey, or test, describe the types of information you will gather and explain how you would establish the validity and reliability. If you are not using such an instrument, describe how you would collect the data.
- Data Analysis – Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) you plan to use to analyze the data. Cite at least one source on the chosen analysis technique (from your Week Two assignment).
- Ethical Issues – Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on your proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. After analyzing the ethical issues that apply to your research proposal, indicate what you would do to handle these concerns.
- Conclusion – Briefly summarize the major points from your paper and reiterate why your proposed study is needed.
Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:
- Must be six to eight double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include a title page with the following:
- Title of paper
- Student’s name
- Course name and number
- Instructor’s name
- Date submitted
- Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
- Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
- Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
- Must use at least six peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last 10 years, in addition to the textbook.
- Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.