Respond to two colleagues who identified a different case and provide feedback on client attachment style and exhibiting behavior.
Colleague 1: Chelsie
Brady is a 15 year old that is currently facing many challenges in his life. Brady is not only struggling in school but at home as well. Brady and his father presented to the social worker because of the concerns that Brady’s dad has had with Brady’s behavior. However, after completing a session with the social worker, it became more apparent that Brady’s behavior has stemmed a lot from his father’s own behavior. It appeared that during the session, the social worker utilized multiple assessment tools to gather the data. One of the most important assessment tools were the multiple interviews conducted with both Brady and his father. According to Springer & Powell (2013), ” The interview serves several purposes, such as an opportunity to establish rapport with the client and allow the client to tell his or her story” (p.73). During the assessment interview, the social worker was able to build enough rapport for Brady to feel comfortable to share that he has been physically abused by his father at home. After reflecting on the information shared by Brady about his father, it can be assumed that Brady struggles with close emotional attachment with his father. There is an apparent of lack of emotional attachment because Brady is afraid of his father. As a result of the lack of emotional attachment, Brady exhibitsbehavioral problems in the community as a way to receive attention that he does not receive at home, and because it is the only way he understands how to react, due to watching his father’s aggressive tendencies.
Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014a). Sessions: case histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader]. Working with Families: The Case of Brady ( pp. 26-28).
Springer, D. W., & Powell, T. M. (2013). Assessment of adolescents. In M. J. Holosko, C. N. Dulmus, & K. M. Sowers (Eds.), Social work practice with individuals and families: Evidence-informed assessments and interventions (pp. 71–95). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Colleague 2: Gradnette
A well-known British psychologist by the name of John Bowlby (1969) emphasized that attachment theory focuses on the process by which strong and enduring relationships develop are maintained and can be modified.” In this view, attachment theory is considered as an excellent foundation for parenting and a great explanation for adult behavior; however, in the case of Brady his father displayed the opposite. The behavior Brady’s father Steve displayed towards him was very aggressive. According to Bowlby (1973) repeated threats can leave a child or adolescent feeling intense anxiety, anger, and rage. Instead of Brady’s father developing a specific positive emotional bond with Brady he displayed numerous of signs of anxiety, anger, and rage. Therefore, the behavior of his father caused Brady to develop the same disruptive behavior according to Bowlby’s description.
In the case involving Brady and his father Steve there were several exhibiting behaviors that can be explained by attachment theory. Additionally, psychologists have proposed two main theories that are affiliated with the attachments. The learning theory and the behaviorist theory of attachment which emphasized that attachment is a set of learned behaviors (Dollard & Miller, 1950). The based for the learning of attachment in the case of Brady and his father can be viewed through four basic concepts of attachment theory: (1) secure attachment, (2) anxious- avoidant attachment, (3) anxious- resistant attachment, and (4) disorganized attachment. In the case of Brady; secure attachment can be viewed as a protective factor which was not attained from him father. Instead of protecting Brady and his feelings, Steve did not display any signs of security other than abuse which causes their relationship to be dysfunctional and created insecurity among his son. Furthermore, Steve disruptive interaction with his son caused Brandy to develop an anxious-avoidant attachment which he tried avoiding certain conversation during sessions with the social worker when his father was present. Brady also tries to avoid physical contact with his father to cease arguments, distress, and negative feelings. When anxious-resistant attachment is present, Brady instantly forms a nervous demeanor. For instance, during session with the social worker the present of his father made Brady a bit more anxiety than the one on one session. Brady’s reactions when his father is present showed signs of fear and control which leads to the disorganized attachment. During the disorganized attachment; Brady’s body gesture showed signs of abuse by displaying nervousness and confusion whenever his father would speak in his present. However, disorganized attachment did not only affected Brady but Steve appeared to be confused as well when he did not noticed his disruptive behavior was a reflection of his son disruptive behavior.
Bowlby, J (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby J. (1969). Attachment. Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Loss. New York: Basic Books.
Dollard, J. & Miller, N.E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy. New York:McGraw-Hill
Respond to at least two colleagues who identified a different case and provide feedback on the client’s stage of development. Identify another area that should be addressed, based on developmental stage.
Colleague 1: Christine
It appears with assessment that Tiffani did master some of that stages presented within Erickson’s Developmental Theory. The client reports knowing a “normal life” between infancy to 8 years old. Here, this defines under this theory that she held onto the virtue of hope, with a psychosocial crisis of trust vs mistrust, in the relationship with her mother and father. If appears that Tiffani had no question whether or not she could trust the world. This can also lead into the theory of Tiffani on the proper path under this theory that she feared nothing. Tiffani also didn’t disclose that she had issues with proper parenting skills from her parents, if she recognized them at all. However, there was no proven event to dismantle any thought that her parents abandoned her or lacked those skills toward providing proper care. (Springer, Powell, TM, 2013)
This idea into this theory did not change for Tiffani as she knows through the critical developmental stages of her life: 2-4 years old, it could have appeared that Tiffani exhibited no shame and no doubt amongst her environment. As the case reports it also appeared that Tiffani held purpose within her family between the ages of 4-5 and 5-8, learning new ways to explore and clearly showing competence identified by her memory during assessment. At the end of this early school age stage Tiffani reports understanding there was a family relationship and she only remembers job, proving that the family unit must have been strong, for which included her sister. Tiffani remember going to school, and her parents getting along. (Plummer, S.B., Brocksen, SM, 2014)
However, this appeared to change once Tiffani hit the adolescence stage of development. Here, Tiffani expresses concern within her life, with the virtue of fidelity and begin to display role confusion due to trauma that was entering her life. She begin to question her parents role, the lack of her parents’ role and displayed behaviors and emotions of mistrust. This led Tiffani to peers that had a negative impact on her life, for which she questioned who she could love. The example here can be of Donald and the negative relationship that directly impacted this developmental stage. Here, Tiffani was forced into prostitution over the power of identify vs role confusion, who were friends vs foe, and how positive relationship vs negative relationship would impact her future.
As Tiffani entered her Early Adulthood stage of development it appears that after working closely with assistance she started to gain more insight toward the developmental stages that perhaps she missed due to lack of parenting. Tiffani begin to exhibit mastery toward understanding intimacy vs isolation and started working for herself while obtaining goals. The virtue here is that Tiffani begin to love herself, which led her to understand the question of who am I and what can I be.
Plummer, S.B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S.M. (Eds). (2014a). Sessions: case histories, Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader] pp. 17-19
Springer, D.W., & Powell T.M. (2013), Assessment of Adolescents. In M.J. Holoskos, C.N. Dulmus, & K.M. Sowers (Eds), Social Work practice with individuals and families: Evidence-informed assessments and interventions (pp71-95) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Colleague 2: Chelsie
Tiffani is a 16 year old girl that has been through many trials and tribulations throughout her short time on earth. After assessing Tiffani’s situation, it is apparent that Tiffany is struggling to master the stage of adolescence. To conduct the assessment, it would be most beneficial to utilize the Children and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) which looks at 8 different environmental factors that influence behaviors in children ages 7-17 (Springer & Powell, 2013). Some of the environmental factors include school/work, family support, mental health, contact with law enforcement and behavior towards others/peers. When assessing Tiffani’s situation utilizing the CAFAS, Tiffani scores low in most sections. Tiffani is does not have social support systems and has limited family interaction. Tiffani also has dropped out of school and does not engage with peers her age. Lastly, Tiffani also struggles with attachment and has a distorted view of love due to believing that her pimp is the “love of her life” (Plummer & Brocksen, 2014). Overtime, while working with Tiffani, the CAFAS can help assess progress. After a couple of months, the CAFAS can be administered again to learn what sections / behaviors Tiffani has improved in and what still need more assistance.
In Tiffani’s case during the intervention process it is most important to address Tiffani’s social supports and personal self views. To work on Tiffani’s social supports, I would engage in a similar process as presented in the case study. I would encourage Tiffani to sit down with her family and talk about her feelings while sharing her views. This would be beneficial in helping Tiffani mend the broken pieces between her and her family. When addressing Tiffani’s personal views and self worth, I would utilize the empowerment theory. The empowerment theory is beneficial to Tiffani because it focuses on “addressing the problems of relatively powerless populations” (Gutierrez & Gillmore, 2000, p.585). Tiffani has been powerless over her life due to being controlled by her pimp. By utilizing the empowerment theory, I can help Tiffani recognize her strengths and how she can take control of her actions and behaviors.
Gutiérrez, L., Oh, H. J., & Gillmore, M. R. (2000). Toward an understanding of (em)power(ment) for HIV/AIDS prevention with adolescent women. Sex Roles, 42(7–8), 581–611.
Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014a). Sessions: Case Histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].
Springer, D. W., & Powell, T. M. (2013). Assessment of adolescents. In M. J. Holosko, C. N. Dulmus, & K. M. Sowers (Eds.), Social Work Practice with Individuals and Families: Evidences Informed Assessments and Interventions (pp. 71–95). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley