Hybrid designs combine the advantages of
a. cross-sectional and correlational research methods.
b. cross-sectional and longitudinal research methods.
c. correlational and longitudinal research methods.
d. correlational and experimental research methods.
One advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
a. allows the researcher to determine why behavior occurs.
b. lets the researcher carefully control the environment.
c. provides information about real-life behaviors.
d. helps researchers determine the thinking behind the child’s behavior.
Negative correlations indicate
a. negative outcomes.
b. inconclusive results.
c. low scores of one variable are associated with low scores of another variable.
d. high scores of one variable are associated with low scores of another variable.
Identify the correct historical order of emergence for the following theories.
a. social learning, dynamic systems, psychoanalytic
b. psychoanalytic, behavioral, neuropsychological
c. behavioral, dynamic systems, neuropsychological
d. psychoanalytic, social learning, dynamic systems
Which of the following statements regarding theories is TRUE?
a. Theories summarize currently known facts.
b. Theories seldom allow for predictions to be made.
c. Theories can directly be proven to be either right or wrong.
d. Theories remain stable despite scientific advances.
Dr. Schaab is a cross-cultural psychologist who conducts research on differences between collectivistic and individualistic societies. Bronfenbrenner would say that Dr. Schaab is focusing on the
The main purpose of a university’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to determine whether researchers
a. are using the appropriate scientific method.
b. are adhering to ethical standards.
c. have appropriate credentials for conducting studies.
d. are testing their hypotheses efficiently.
Generally speaking, many theories
a. address specific aspects of development.
b. are remarkably similar to one another.
c. can be easily compared until one is proven “right.”
d. do not allow for specific predictions to be made.
Dr. McGaw was interested in whether children’s recall of familiar or unfamiliar words improved with age, so she tested 4-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and 8-year-olds at the same point in time. This is an example of a
a. hybrid design.
b. case study design.
c. cross-sectional design.
d. longitudinal design.
Praise and hugs are typically examples of
Learning to use the bathroom appropriately and waiting until morning to eat are examples of
b. delay of gratification.
c. unconscious sexual desires.
d. superego development.
Early behaviorists were interested in
a. making psychology more objective and scientific.
b. ensuring that elements of the unconscious mind were more measurable.
c. helping psychology align itself more with theories of evolution.
d. understanding children’s thought processes.
Raenna was grounded for two weeks because she arrived home after her curfew one night. Raenna now comes home before her curfew due to
a. observational learning.
b. social learning.
c. classical conditioning.
d. operant conditioning.
According to psychoanalytic theory, in order to have a healthy personality
a. a person’s id must be stronger than the ego and superego to insure survival.
b. a person’s superego must be stronger than the ego and id for moral development to occur.
c. the id, ego, and superego must be eliminated during psychosexual development.
d. the ego must balance the id and superego and be able to cope with external demands.
Erikson theorized that the primary challenge facing newborns was
a. dealing with oral needs.
b. struggling with trust issues.
c. developing a sense of patience.
d. coping with unconscious sexual desires.
According to Vygotsky’s theory, development occurs due to the person’s
a. internalization of cultural values.
b. reorganization of mental schemes with age.
c. imitation of adult authority figures.
d. development of a basic sense of trust.
Which of the following statements concerning Piaget’s perspective on learning is TRUE?
a. Learning is primarily unconscious and occurs through classical conditioning.
b. Learning is a continual cycle of assimilation and accommodation.
c. Learning occurs when the ego is strong enough to balance the id and superego.
d. Learning occurs through the processes of modeling and imitation.
Eisenberg et al. (1999) studied a single group of 32 children, taking measurements of their helping behaviors approximately every two years from the time the children were four years old until they were young adults. This study used a(n)
a. hybrid design.
b. experimental design.
c. cross-sectional design.
d. longitudinal design.
The fact that IQ scores are more similar among identical twins than among fraternal twins
a. suggests that siblings treated similarly will be similar in achievement.
b. suggests that siblings of the same gender are more intellectually similar.
c. shows the influence of nurture on children’s intellectual development.
d. shows the influence of nature on children’s intellectual development.
Ninety preschool children are randomly divided into three groups. Every day for two weeks, one group watches 30 minutes of “Sesame Street,” a second group watches 30 minutes of “Road Runner” cartoons, and a third group watches 30 minutes of “Scooby Doo” cartoons. At the end of two weeks, all three groups are given a test of creativity. This research design would best be classified as
d. naturalistic observation.
Dr. Rice found that the correlation between children’s amount of sleep and their amount of daytime energy was +.40. This correlation indicates that
a. the more sleep a child gets, the more energy he or she has.
b. sleep and energy are not related.
c. having more energy allows children to get more sleep.
d. the more sleep a child gets, the less energy the child has.
Which of the following theoretical perspectives focuses the LEAST on biological explanations of child development?
a. Ethological theory
b. Behavior genetics
d. Ecological systems
Which of the following correlations would be most likely to reflect the relationship between a child’s age and mathematical skills?
Grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and friends of the family are all part of Bronfenbrenner’s
Researchers sometimes use animals to study questions related to child development because
a. children younger than six years of age cannot participate in psychological research.
b. it would be unethical to manipulate certain variables of interest in humans.
c. there are no ethical guidelines for conducting research with animals.
d. it is too difficult, time-consuming, and expensive to conduct correlational research.
At first, Josh neither liked nor disliked the song “Hey There, Delilah.” However, one day his girlfriend broke up with him while that song was playing. Now Josh gets sad each time he hears that song. “Hey There, Delilah” has now become
a. a conditioned stimulus.
b. an unconditioned stimulus.
c. a conditioned response.
d. an unconditioned response.
The psychoanalytic personality part responsible for our sense of morality is/are the
d. both the id and the ego.
Freud claimed that the successful resolution of the phallic stage and the Oedipus complex involves
a. curbing one’s hunger.
b. using the bathroom appropriately.
c. copying the same sex parent.
d. the sexual pursuit of one’s peers.
Sometimes a researcher creates a standard situation or environment that allows each child the same opportunity to engage in a specific behavior of interest. This type of research design is called
a. naturalistic observation.
b. structured observation.
c. path analysis.
d. cross-sectional observation.
Lorenz’ concept of imprinting involves
a. unconscious reasons for biological functions.
b. attachment to the first guardian figure found after birth.
c. the impact of classical and operant conditioning on learned behaviors.
d. looking for ways in which individuals process new information.
The extreme feelings of self-consciousness that many adolescents feel may be related to the ________ form of adolescent egocentrism.
a. personal fable
c. imaginary audience
Vygotsky believed that children learn to think primarily by
a. trial and error.
b. conditioning and reinforcement.
c. constructing their own knowledge about the world.
d. internalizing the speech they hear around them.
If Chris and his coworkers work together to design a new ad campaign, they are demonstrating
a. socially shared cognition.
b. guided participation.
c. central participation.
d. situated cognition.
A major distinction between Vygotsky’s theory of development and Piaget’s theory is that the Vygotsky focused more directly on
a. social interaction’s contribution to cognitive growth.
b. cognitive assessment through standardized tasks.
c. different stages of language development.
d. the universality and invariance of cognitive development.
By about ________ months of age, a child can typically solve invisible displacement problems.
When children can use one object to stand for or represent another, they are said to be able to engage in
a. make-believe play.
b. fantasy play.
c. symbolic play.
d. social play.
A primary difference between intuitive thought and logic is that
a. logic is based on a formal system of rules, whereas intuitive thought is based on personal experience.
b. intuitive thought develops in the formal operations stage, whereas logic develops during the preoperational stage.
c. logic is egocentric, whereas intuitive thought involves the ability to take other people’s perspectives into account.
d. intuitive thought is more symbolic and language-based, whereas logic is more artificial and centrated.
Which of the following statements regarding the kinds of information children learn from interaction with the environment during the sensorimotor stage is FALSE?
a. Children may learn about the sounds an object makes.
b. Children may learn about how an object can be manipulated.
c. Children may learn about the object’s surface texture and weight.
d. Children may learn about how one object compares to another.
Providing supportive assistance and guidance to a child learning a new task or developing a skill is called
a. proximal development.
b. assistive reassurance.
d. cognitive synthesis.
Before the child has grasped object permanence, it is fair to say that a child believes which of the following?
a. Easy come, easy go
b. Finders, keepers
c. Out of sight, out of mind
d. What’s mine is mine
Between eighteen months and two years of age, children’s vocabulary typically increases by a little more than
a. one hundred words.
b. two hundred words.
c. three hundred words.
d. five hundred words.
Paolo has been working in his uncle’s bakery since he was able to walk, and he can double or halve recipes with ease. In the classroom, however, he tends to have difficulty with word problems and equations containing fractions. This is an example of
a. stunted interaction.
b. collaborative learning.
c. situated cognition.
d. a phenomenological variant.
Which of the following statements regarding the beginning of the sensorimotor stage is FALSE?
a. Children in this stage learn about the world through their senses (e.g., hearing, seeing, and tasting).
b. Children in this stage are able to create mental representations of physical objects outside themselves.
c. Children in this stage “think” by making sensory contact with objects.
d. Children in this stage “think” by making motor contact with objects.
Ten-year-old Anne needs to prepare a book report for class tomorrow. Her mother is concerned because Anne is frustrated and seems to need help finishing it. Which of the following situations would best exemplify scaffolding behavior on the part of Anne’s mother?
a. Writing the report for Anne
b. Allowing Anne to finish the report without help, thereby working through her frustration
c. Suggesting Anne talk to a friend about the book’s plot
d. Asking Anne questions about the book’s plot
To say that a young infant’s interaction with the environment is reflexive means that the infant
a. reacts to the environment without having voluntary control over his or her actions.
b. can intentionally respond to the environment through physical and mental actions.
c. can engage in trial-and-error learning without anticipating a specific outcome.
d. can engage in trial-and-error learning in a logical and intentional manner.
When faced with an invisible displacement problem, an infant
a. watches an object being hidden in one location, and then watches as it is moved to a different location.
b. watches an object being hidden in one location, and then the object is secretly moved to a different location.
c. watches two objects being hidden in separate locations, and then watches as the two objects are switched.
d. watches two objects being hidden in the same location, and then one object is secretly moved to a different location.
Research examining Piaget’s theory in a number of different cultures indicates that
a. children seem to pass through Piaget’s stages in the same order and at the same ages worldwide.
b. children seem to pass through Piaget’s stages in the same order, but not necessarily at the same ages, worldwide.
c. all children regardless of cultural background or educational level, eventually attain formal operations.
d. the rates at which individuals achieve formal operations are the same in industrialized and nonindustrialized countries.
The sensorimotor stage lasts from
a. birth until the child can walk.
b. about ages 1 to 4.
c. age 2 until the child starts school.
d. birth until about age 2.
Which of the following is an example of Vygotsky’s concept of private speech?
a. Julie and Jessica are twins who talk to themselves in an imaginary language.
b. Christopher announces to himself that he is going down the slide.
c. Lori tells her son, Mitchell, that his zipper is down.
d. Sarah and Don whisper to each other about the person near them.
When children are learning a new activity, they often talk aloud in order to give support and directions to themselves. Vygotsky referred to this type of “talking aloud” as
a. social speech.
b. private speech.
c. public speech.
d. mental speech.
When children’s thinking is “decentered,” it means that they
a. can’t think about a problem from other people’s perspectives.
b. can usually engage in egocentric thinking.
c. can consider multiple aspects of a problem at the same time.
d. can reverse operations in addition and multiplication problems.
As a young child, Grace felt sorry for the unused ornaments and believed that they felt lonely and forgotten. This is most clearly an example of
d. make-believe play.
When your niece’s toy rolls out of sight under her bed, she immediately begins to search for it. What Piagetian concept does her behavior illustrate?
c. Object permanence
The primary limitation of children’s thinking during the concrete operations stage is that they
a. master the skills of transitivity, reversibility, and class inclusion in a sequential manner.
b. can think logically only about tangible or familiar materials, contexts, and situations.
c. can only engage in deductive reasoning using activities like the pendulum problem.
d. cannot think about process and only see the beginning and end of a problem.
According to Vygotsky, the process of taking external speech and activity and making it internal and mental is called
Children’s understanding that objects and people can belong to more than one category at a time can be observed in their responses to
a. transivity problems.
b. class inclusion problems.
c. conservation problems.
d. the three-mountains task.
According to a constructivist perspective, which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. People perceive the environment as it actually exists and do not make any interpretations.
b. Young children create their own independent interpretations of reality, but adults do not.
c. There is only one reality, and individuals should not differ in their interpretations of it.
d. People interpret their experiences using their already existing knowledge and experiences.
Experts in child development generally agree that the most revolutionary and influential theorist in the study of child development was
a. Theophile Simon.
b. Lev Vygotsky.
c. Jean Piaget.
d. Geoffrey Saxe.
According to Piaget, once an object is out of direct sensory or motor contact with a child in the earliest substage of sensorimotor development, the child
a. develops a primitive physical representation of the object’s texture.
b. does not know or remember anything about the object.
c. remembers the object and is motivated to search for it.
d. cries in an indirect attempt to have the object returned.
The ability to engage in abstract reasoning about hypothetical events that are not directly experienced develops in which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
a. Concrete operations
b. Formal operations