Module 2 focuses on the biological and environmental origins of criminal behavior, expanding upon the overview of these components, which were covered in Module 1. You will focus on the question, “Are criminals born, or are they the products of their environment or even society?” You will examine the contributions of biological factors, such as genetics, temperament, physical attributes, and neurophysiological mechanisms, to criminal behavior. You will then explore the sociological factors that may play a role in criminal activity. These factors include learning as well as situational causes. This module also focuses on human aggression and the link between media and violent behavior. Understanding the origins of criminality and aggression is crucial to prevention and treatment programs.
You will explore a variety of theoretical models used to explain aggression and criminality. The ability to explain or conceptualize criminal behavior from one or more theoretical perspectives is a fundamental MAFP program outcome.
Natalie was growing concerned about her daughter Brandi’s school performance. Brandi’s grades had dropped since the beginning of the school year, and she seemed reluctant to go to school. On some days, she complained of vague symptoms, such as a stomachache or a headache. On other days, she simply did not get out of bed. Natalie took her to the doctor, but there was no definitive diagnosis. She questioned Brandi about any problems at school, but Brandi was uncommonly quiet. Natalie then looked at Brandi’s Facebook page and saw a series of comments from Brandi’s friends about a school bully. When Natalie confronted Brandi, the child broke down crying and told the whole story. Another girl, who was two years ahead of her in school, was bullying her. She would tease Brandi in school and leave nasty messages on her Facebook page and had even threatened her on several occasions.
Natalie was furious and immediately arranged a meeting with the teacher and the school principal. The school officials attempted to address the problem by speaking to the girl and her parents. The parents placed their daughter in treatment; she was diagnosed with a behavior disorder and put on medication, which seemed to work. Both the girl’s parents and the school officials explained to Natalie that the girl had an underlying medical condition that caused her to become angry and lack impulse control. The school officials were reluctant to suspend the girl because it was “not her fault” but rather a “biological factor” causing the behavior.
Natalie was still upset. She did not understand why her own daughter should suffer. She had a nagging suspicion that the bully’s parents were using the biological cause as an excuse for their daughter’s bad behavior.
Research the biological, learning, and sociological factors discussed in this module using your textbook, Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet.
On the basis of the scenario and drawing on your readings and research, respond to the following:
- What are some theories that would best explain the bully’s behavior? Do you think it is mostly biological, or would you hypothesize that perhaps the bully has learned the behavior? Support your response using cited sources.
- According to your analysis, what are some interventions you would recommend that the school utilize in dealing with the bully?