Assignment: Measures of Central Tendency and Variability

Assignment: Measures of Central Tendency and Variability

Last week, you learned how to summarize a distribution by using frequency distribution tables and various graphs. The shape the frequency distribution forms is important, but frequency tables and graphs are not always the most efficient or meaningful way to summarize large amounts of data. In addition to graphing the shape of the distribution, statistics can be computed to provide even more information about the scores. Measures of central tendency tell us how the scores in the data set “hang together.” What score or scores are “typical” for the data set? Measures of variability help us understand how scores are spread out. How big are the distances between scores? Computing measures of central tendency, such as the mean, median, and mode, and measures of variability, such as the range and standard deviation, is often the first step researchers take after collecting data for a study.

This application will allow you to practice computing and interpreting some common measures of central tendency and measures of variability, both by hand and with the statistical software package SPSS. Download the data set that you will use for this assignment from the Weekly Data Set forum. Be sure to watch this week’s instructional video in the introduction or Learning Resources folder before beginning your Application Assignment.

Scenario: Imagine that your employer is hosting a walking competition. Employees are to report the number of minutes they walk each week. Your employer has asked you to compute descriptive statistics on the data from the first week of the competition to help him know how much people are walking.

You can find the data for this Assignment in the Weekly Data Set forum.

To complete this Assignment, submit by Day 7 calculations of the following measures of central tendency and measures of variability by hand:

By Day 7

To complete this Assignment, submit calculations of the following measures of central tendency and measures of variability by hand:

  1. Mean
  2. Median
  3. Mode
  4. Range
  5. Deviation of the highest score from the mean
  6. Estimated population standard deviation
  7. X2 (explain your calculations, but you do not to interpret this result in relation to the scenario)
  8. (∑X)2 (explain your calculations, but you do not to interpret this result in relation to the scenario)

For each measure you compute by hand, include an explanation of:

  • Your calculations (explain the steps)
  • What that measure tells you about the number of minutes walked by employees

For example, each of your answers might look something like this: “The mean of this sample is ______ minutes walked in the first week. The mean is calculated by _________________. The mean tells me that participants in the sample walked ____________ in the first week.”

  1. Compute the mean and standard deviation in SPSS. Note: Your hand-calculated mean and standard deviation may differ somewhat from the calculations in SPSS due to rounding.
  2. Describe how the standard deviation (SD) and the deviation of a single score from the mean differ in the information they provide.
  3. Without redoing any calculations, think critically about how each measure would be affected if the lowest score was eliminated from the data set. Explain if each measure (mean, median, mode, deviation of the highest score from the mean, and standard deviation) would increase, decrease, or stay the same.
  4. Identify the type of distribution (positive skew, negative skew, or normal distribution) the data create. Explain how you know the type of distribution and what it tells you about the sample.

Write your responses in your own words. It is acceptable to number your answers, but do not copy and paste the questions into your answer document.

Be sure to fully explain the rationale for your answer to each question, including evidence from the text and learning resources.

Provide an APA reference list.

Submit three documents for grading:

  • Your text (Word) document with your answers and explanations to the application questions.Submit the word document to the Week 2 Assignment Part 1 link.
  • Your SPSS Data file , and your SPSS Output file to the Week 2 Assignment Part 2 link.

Define Philosophy, describe its main branches, the question each asks

Define Philosophy, describe its main branches, the question each asks, and describe how the answers to those questions formulate worldviews and their correlate ethical systems. (Compare and contrast). What does it mean to have a philosophic view worldview? How is one’s worldview related to the main categories of Ethical views that have been introduced. Describe what you have learned about the elements involved in addressing ethical dilemmas. Cite the distinctions between Ethics, morality and Law. How is the discipline of Ethics distinct from that of religious or social moral prescriptions? In general describe the relevance of Philosophy as a discipline for applying Ethical Systems in everyday moral decision making. Can you speculate what some of the conflicting views that these ethical systems might hold on the topics we will be addressing in this course?

Using the University Library, browse through a number of articles from peer-reviewed journals

Using the University Library, browse through a number of articles from peer-reviewed journals on the topic of developmental psychology. A few examples of appropriate journals are provided below. Read several abstracts and select three articles that address topics that you may want to investigate further in your Week Six paper.

Write a 1-paragraph summary of each article, explaining what you found most interesting and why. After each summary, provide the full reference for the article in APA format. Possible journals to explore include:

  • Developmental Psychology
  • Psychology and Aging
  • Journal of Early Intervention
  • Journal of Educational Psychology
  • Child Development
  • Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
  • Learning and Individual Differences
  • Journal of Early Adolescence
  • Journal of Research on Adolescence
  • Sex Roles
  • Gerontology and Geriatrics Education
  • Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

“Even from a strictly military point of view, it seems strategically of dubious

“Even from a strictly military point of view, it seems strategically of dubious efficiency to undertake operations that in effect guarantee the loss of one’s fighters in every assault. Ideally, for a movement aimed at actual military victory, it would seem to make more sense if, instead of killing themselves in the process of making their attacks, the ‘human bombers’ could have gone on killing many more…in subsequent non-suicidal attacks. Osama bin Laden surely continues to inspire more terror today as potentially alive than he would have had he died in a martyrdom operation in Afghanistan…the strictly military rationality of these operations does not seem necessarily or undividedly the only priority of these self-inflicted deaths (pg. 3).”

One can hardly argue with this. There is a certain illogic to using humans as weapons. To launch an offensive guaranteed to cost 100% of one’s mission personnel would not be considered effective military strategy. We know some losses are inevitable in many military conflicts, but here we are talking about 100% loss of personnel sent on the mission each time a suicide bomber attack occurs. If we assume based on the statements above that “human bombers” are not about military strategy, then what are they about? Are they motivated by a view of themselves as reflective of jihadist perspectives of them as being sacrifices and/or “gifts”?

Consider this-if you were going to attempt to recruit people to be suicide bombers what would you focus on? How would you get them to want to “sign up”? What methods, media and messages would you use in your recruitment campaign?

 

300 word minimum

Evaluating Professional and Popular Press Self-discovery Assessments

Evaluating Professional and Popular Press Self-discovery Assessments

Career counselors often use psychological assessments to assist individuals in career planning and goal-setting. There are several steps that can be helpful in the career planning process, such as conducting a self-assessment, exploring industries/careers, and determining factors that are non-negotiable (e.g., shift, location, salary, the need for specific benefits). Prior to beginning work on this assignment, you will need to read the article by Barr (2014) and take two different types of self-discovery assessment.

To begin, research VIA Character Strengths Test, O*Net Interest Profiler, and TypeFocus listed below to determine which one is of interest to you. Once you have completed your research, take one of the assessment to complete Part I of your Journal.

A. VIA Character Strengths Test

Character strengths are viewed as our positive personality they are our core capacities for thinking, feeling, and behaving in ways that can bring benefit to us and others.
To take the VIA Character Strengths assessment: follow the link to register.
VIA Character Strengths Test
https://www.viacharacter.org/Survey/Account/Register
*Please note, the results are free and please do not pay for this assessment.

B. O*Net Interest Profiler

The assessment can help you learn about your interests as it relates to different career fields. http://www.mynextmove.org/explore/ip

C. TypeFocus

This online assessment is designed to assess your personality type, interests, and values to assist you in making effective decisions about your career goals. TypeFocus also provides valuable information about careers that may likely be a good fit for you. Based on your results, a Career Services Specialist will guide you through the process of identifying career goals that fit your interests and personality type.

Click here to learn how to take the assessment. https://bridgepoint.equella.ecollege.com/curriculum/file/5a31c889-448e-438b-ab88-8122cd2ec0e7/1/TypeFocus_Getting_Started.pdf

Journal Assignment Part 1: Take one of the assessments VIA Character Strengths Test, O*Net Interest Profiler, or TypeFocus. Provide the following information about the assessment in Part 1 of your journal:

  • Name of the test
  • Present your basic impressions of the test in 1-2 sentences.

Journal Assignment Part 2: Locate a free, online self-discovery assessment (e.g., career, personality, values, preferences) and take the assessment to receive your results. It is recommended that you do not take assessments that require you to submit an email address or other personal information in order to receive your results. Provide the following information about the assessment in Part 2 of your journal:

  • Name of the test
  • URL where the test is located
  • Present your basic impressions of the test in 1-2 sentences.

Journal Assignment Part 3: Compare and contrast the professional assessment in career services with the popular press assessment you found online. Address each of the basic measurement issue listed below.

  • Test content
  • Administration format
  • Administration time
  • Item-response format
  • Face validity
  • Homogeneity and heterogeneity
  • Using the test you took in Career Services as the criterion, judge the apparent criterion-related validity of the popular press assessment you located.
  • If you took one or both of the assessments more than once, comment on test-retest reliability based on your experience.
  • Conclude by critiquing the utility of the instruments.

This journal does not require you to share personal information about your mental health or any information that you deem personal and sensitive. You are not required to share your actual results. Per Standard 7.04 in the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, psychology instructors cannot ask students to divulge this kind of information for grading purposes. Your journal will be graded based on whether or not you provided a substantial and thoughtful evaluation of the assessment instruments and address each of the items required in the instructions.

The Journal Assignment:

  • Must be at least 1 single-spaced page in length (not including title and reference pages).
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use at least 2 scholarly sources, 1 of which must be an original peer-reviewed research article, in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate title page and reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Waypoint Assignment Submission

The assignments in this course will be submitted to Waypoint.  Please refer to the instructions below to submit your assignment.

  1. Click on the Assignment Submission button below. The Waypoint “Student Dashboard” will open in a new browser window.
  2. Browse for your assignment.
  3. Click Upload.
  4. Confirm that your assignment was successfully submitted by viewing the appropriate week’s assignment tab in Waypoint.

For more detailed instructions, refer to the Waypoint Tutorial.

Click the button below to access Waypoint

Why is this an ethical dilemma? Which APA Ethical Principles help frame the nature of the dilemma?

 

  1. Why is this an ethical dilemma? Which APA Ethical Principles help frame the nature of the dilemma?

     

  2. Who are the stakeholders and how will they be affected by how Dr. Vaji resolves this dilemma?

     

  3. What additional information might Dr. Vaji collect to provide him with a more accurate picture of Leo’s multicultural attitudes and professional skills? What are the reasons for and against contacting Leo’s supervisor for more information? Should he request that Leo’s sessions with clients be electronically recorded or observed?

     

  4. Is Dr. Vaji in a potentially unethical multiple relationship as both Leo’s externship supervisor and his teacher in the Health Disparate class? Why or why not?

     

  5. To what extent, if any, should Dr. Vaji consider Leo’s own ethnicity in his deliberations? Would the dilemma be addressed differently if Leo self-identified as non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or non-Hispanic black?

     

  6. Once the dilemma is resolved, should Dr. Vaji have a follow-up meeting with the students who complained?

     

  7. How are APA Ethical Standards 1.08, 3.04, 3.05, 3.09, 7.04, 7.05, and 7.06 and the Hot Topics “Ethical Supervision of Trainees” (Chapter 10) and “Multicultural Ethical Competence” (Chapter 5) relevant to this case? Which other standards might apply?

     

  8. What are Dr. Vaji’s ethical alternatives for resolving this dilemma? Which alternatives best reflects the Ethics Code aspirational principles and enforceable standards, legal standards, and obligations to stakeholders? Can you identify the ethical theory (discussed in Chapter 3) guiding your decision?

     

  9. What steps should Dr. Vaji take to implement his decision and monitor its effect?

As a clinical mental health counselor you consciously use certain skills

As a clinical mental health counselor you consciously use certain skills, such as open-ended questions, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, and summarizing to demonstrate to the client that you heard, understood, and empathized with what he or she said. These skills help to initiate rapport with the client, creating a safe and therapeutic environment where change can occur. These skills help the client to initiate change as you guide him or her through the counseling process.

To what extent are these skills part of the art and/or science of clinical mental health counseling? After you apply some of these skills to a client scenario, think about how you might answer that question.

To prepare for this Discussion:

·         Review Chapter 6 and the Levitt article, focusing on the different types of counseling microskills; how active listening can enhance the other microskills, such as paraphrasing; and how each microskill could be used within a counseling session.

·         Review the “Vignettes: Counseling Microskills Discussion” document in the Learning Resources and select one to use for this Discussion.

 

·         Think about how you could use an 1)open-ended question, 2)paraphrasing, and 3)reflection of what the client is feeling for the vignette you selected.

This week, you will submit the final draft of your research paper.

This week, you will submit the final draft of your research paper. The research paper should include any improvements or changes your instructor has recommended as part of the feedback on the rough draft submission. The research paper should adhere to the following guidelines:

 

  • The main section should include the following:
    • A title page.
    • An introduction: This should be 1 page in length. The introduction will provide a brief overview of what will be covered and the purpose of the research paper.
    • A literature review (with subheadings): The literature review will be based partly on what you had written in Weeks 2–4. Do not copy that material. This section should be a synthesis of the material found in a cohesive review of the literature on your chosen topic. Remember to use the subtopics that you created in last week’s literature review.
    • A discussion and a conclusion: The difference between a great research paper and a marginal one is the depth and originality of the discussion and conclusion sections. This is where you bring together what you learned from the literature review, as well as the course, in your concluding remarks regarding your topic. The discussion and conclusion sections should be 1–2 pages in length.
    • A reference page.
  • The APA style should be followed for citing sources and references.

Week 4 Life Span and Human Growth Development

Week 4 Life Span and Human Growth Development

Write a 750-1,000-word essay that utilizes Erik Erikson’s stages of development by interviewing someone that you may know. This may require asking for a brief social history. In this interview process, define and analyze the different stages of development that this person may have completed. Summarize by indicating where you might begin a counseling session with this person.

References will be required as you will be using Erikson’s stages of development and comparing this person’s life to his stages.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. Only Word documents can be submitted to Turnitin.

Prior to beginning this assignment, please review all the required readings

Prior to beginning this assignment, please review all the required readings from the first three weeks as well as the articles you used in your literature review in Week Two.

During this course, you have been developing your knowledge in the area of learning and cognition. In the Week Two Assignment, there was special focus on the following constructs within learning and cognition:

  • The Neurosciences: A Look at Our Brains
  • Socio-Cognition: Social Interactions in Learning
  • Learning and Literacy: Reading, Writing and Language Development
  • Diversity and Culture: The Effects to Learning
  • Connectionism and Learning: A Web of Development

These constructs, along with others, influence a wide variety of disciplines in psychology and other fields. In the final week of this course, you will develop a handbook based on one of these constructs. This week, you will choose the construct that you will concentrate on for this project. The construct you choose should be based on the area in which you would most like to develop your knowledge. Your choice should also consider your current interests in psychology and support your future career goals.

Identify the audience for your handbook and the main construct in learning and cognition that will provide the focus of your handbook. Explain your motivation for using the chosen construct as your focus subject as well as how this construct aligns with your future career goals. Research five peer-reviewed articles in the Ashford University Library focusing on your chosen construct. These articles must provide sufficient information so that they will support your work in the handbook. See the instructions for the Learning and Cognition Handbook in Week Six for further clarification. Provide complete references for each of the five articles. Format your references according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Beneath each reference, provide an annotation that explains the theoretical perspectives, historical trends, and/or empirical findings within the article that describe and define your chosen construct. Provide a concluding paragraph that synthesizes the cognitive learning principles and theories found within the articles as they relate to your chosen construct.

As you prepare this assignment, keep in mind that it is designed to assist you with beginning the process of drafting your Learning and Cognition Handbook, which is due in Week Six. The paper should not include any quotes. It is recommended that your paper be checked in the Writing Reviser and through Turnitin prior to submission.

The paper:

  • Must be two to four double-spaced pages in length, excluding the annotated bibliography, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that clearly states the chosen construct.
  • Must clearly discuss and explain the chosen construct with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that synthesizes the cognitive learning principles and theories found within the articles as they relate to the chosen construct.
  • Must use at least five peer-reviewed sources from the Ashford University Library.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the In-Text Citation Guide.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.