# Below are several real results sections taken from APA published manuscripts

Spot The Study Design

Below are several real results sections taken from APA published manuscripts. Based on the excerpts, I want you to do a few things for each study. FIRST, identify the study design (tell me if it is correlational or experimental). SECOND, if it is experimental, identify the independent variable. THIRD, if it is experimental, identify the dependent variables. FOURTH, tell me what statistical test the author ran and tell me how you know they ran that specific test (that is, what features of the results excerpt points to it being statistical test ABC rather than statistical test XYZ). FINALLY, piece together the null and alternative hypotheses for each study excerpt.

Note #1: In published research, authors might refer to tables for means, so you may not see them in the excerpts below!

Note #2: Sometimes the author specifically mentioned the test they ran in the excerpt. Since I think you can spot it without being blatantly told what test they ran, I simple deleted that info (hence the ________ in some of the paragraphs). Hope you don’t mind!

Note #3: I might have included the same kind of study design more than once (and omitted some of the study designs we covered this semester). You are forewarned!

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Study One Results Section:

To measure amount of violent video game play, participants were asked to name their three favorite video games, to indicate how often they play each video game (on a scale from 1 = sometimes to 7 = very often), and to rate how violent the content of each video game was (on a scale from 1=not at all to 7=very). As in previous research (e.g., Anderson & Dill, 2000; Greitemeyer, 2014), for each video game, the frequency of game play was multiplied by violent content. These three violent video game exposure scores were then summed to provide a measure of the amount of violent video game play.

The expanded version of the Comprehensive Assessment of Sadistic Tendencies (Buckels & Paulhus, 2014) was used to assess everyday sadism, which contains 18 items. A sample item is: “I was purposely mean to some people in high school.” To measure narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, we used the Dirty Dozen, with four items per subscale (Jonason & Webster, 2010). Sample items are: “I tend to want others to pay attention to me” (narcissism), “I have used deceit or lied to getmy way“ (Machiavellianism), and “I tend to be cynical“(psychopathy). Both sadistic tendencies and the Dark Triad items were assessed on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). To measure trait aggression, participants responded to the short version of the Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire (Bryant & Smith, 2001),which contains 12 items (e.g., “I have threatened people I know.”) These items were assessed on a scale from 1 (very unlike me) to 5 (very like me). To measure the Big 5, a brief version was employed (Gosling, Rentfrow, & Swann, 2003). There are two items per scale. Some scale reliabilities were relatively poor, which is a typical psychometric cost of using short measures (Gosling et al., 2003). The Big 5 items were assessed on a scale from 1 (disagree strongly) to 7 (strongly agree.

All measures are shown in Table 1. In support of our central hypothesis, violent video game play was positively associated with everyday sadism at both times of measurement. In addition, amount of violent video game play was consistently positively associated with trait aggression and the Dark Triad and was negatively associated with agreeableness