1:? Consider how the current challenges and context of an organisation you know well, drives the need to foc




BMO0249 2020-21 

Developing and Leading People     Individual Assignment 

Module: BMO0249

Individual     presentation and briefing paper 

Assignment length: Question 1: 1500 word written

Question     2: 20 minute presentation slide with note 1500 words 


Consider how the current challenges and context of an organisation you know well, drives the need to focus on leadership or management, or both – using your answer to draw out the differences and similarities between leadership and management. 

Format: Written briefing paper 1,500 words max

Weighting: 50% of this assessment


Critically analyse whether your chosen organisation is delivering the requirements of leadership and / or management discussed in question 1, using your answer to identify elements of good practice and areas for improvement.

Format: Presentation (20 minutes – 8-10 slides)

1500 Words max

Weighting: 50% of this assessment


Question 1:

Consider how the current challenges and context of an organisations you know well, drives the need to focus on leadership or management, or both – using your answer to draw out the differences and similarities between leadership and management. (50%)

1. Introduction

1.1: A range of definitions of leadership and management, with critical analysis of the literature to say which applies most to their organisation

• Definitions of Leadership then critically evaluate 

• Definitions of Management then critically evaluate

2. Main Body

1.2 An understanding of how the current context of the organisation  (challenges, development stage, market position etc) drives the need to focus on leadership and / or management

– Discussion of leadership theory in the context of the organisation 

– (include the most relevant of the 7 frameworks)

– Discussion of management theory in the context of the organisation

– (consider including Fayol / Mintzberg / Theory X/Y etc)

– Challenges of leading / managing individuals

1.3 Identification and comparison of the areas of difference and similarity for leadership and management in both theory and in their organisation

– Identify differences between leadership and management in theory AND in your organisation

– Identify similarities between leadership and management in theory AND in your organisation

3. Conclusion

1.4 Reach a conclusion in answer to the question 

– Clearly state your answer to the question about the organisation’s current need for leadership; or management; or both; and justify your answer.

How does this link to literature?

Question 2:

Critically analyse whether your chosen organisation is delivering the requirements of leadership and / or management discussed in question 1, using your answer to identify elements of good practice and areas for improvement. (50%) this is a presentation

Q2: Content

2.1 Critical analysis as to whether leaders are leading or managing

• What activities are your leaders undertaking: are they showing leadership as defined in question 1; or are they actually carrying out more management related activity. Is this what the organisation requires?

2.2 Critical analysis as to whether managers are managing or also leading

• Are managers carrying out the traditionally defined management roles, or are they also acting as leaders, and is this what the organisation requires?

2.3 Critical analysis of the structure of the organisation

• Is the organisation you have described structured in a way to meet the leadership and management challenges you have described in question 1?

2.4 Critical analysis of the roles in the organisation

• Are the job roles in the organisation relevant to addressing the challenges of leadership / management described in question 1?


2.5 What is your organisation doing well (good practice) in terms of the leadership / management requirements identified in question 1?

2.6 Are there any areas for improvement (Structure / job roles / styles etc) to meet the need for leadership and management

Key points

• There’s lots of possible material … so it’s a challenge to fit within the word-count.

• The amount of content should roughly mirror the weighting of the questions.

• If you find you are listing/describing material, put it in the appendices.

Students should demonstrate the ability to critically analyse the models and the relevance to their organisation. 

Current material

Relevant material

Application to the organisation

Critical analysis rather than repeating / regurgitating 


• Powerpoint Slides (8-10)

• Write in the Notes section

• You can access these either under Normal View Tab at the bottom, or the View Tab / Notes Page in the Tools Bar Graphical user interface, application, PowerPoint  Description automatically generated

Background / introduction 

(see note below; if this precedes Q1, it will not be included in the word-count)

QUESTION 1 : 50% = max 1500 words



 words QUESTION 2: 50% = max 20 minute presentation (8-10 slides)

Appendices for assignment / notes for presentation (unlimited .. but relevant!)


In this assignment we are looking at your ability to understand and effectively use the academic material covered in the lectures, supporting material and wider reading; and in particular your ability to apply this to your organisation and critique in terms of its leadership and management.

The word count & presentation time are both limited, for a potentially wide ranging subject – so you will have to write in an effective and efficient way.

The questions are linked, so anything in the Background / Introduction does not need to be repeated, but can be cross referenced. Similarly the answer to question 2: is based on your answer to Question 1; so again use cross-referencing rather than repetition.

For the written brief (Q1): use appendices, as they are not included in the word-count. In general, if material is descriptive, then this should be placed in the appendix, with a brief reference in the main answer.

Similarly for the presentation (Q2): use handouts/notes for detailed material rather than trying to put everything onto a PowerPoint presentation.

REFERENCING: APA 7th edition


The following have been built into the teaching schedule and included in Brightspace to provide you with a range of resources and materials to draw upon:

Relevant lectures: 

Weeks 1: teaching material and additional in class handouts

Weeks 1 Collated group work – captured under the appropriate week in Brightspace 

Week 1: In-class discussion and formative feedback on the setting, context and indicative content of your Assignment


Brightspace Lecture materials plus additional articles – organised by week

Dedicated Assignment Resources area on Brightspace

Rees G and French R (2016) Leading Managing and Developing People, London, CIPD publishing

In addition, the tutor will be available to discuss your work during office hours, and formative feedback on drafts will be provided – details of this will be covered during the lectures.


The assignment will be assessed using the CIPD’s ‘BAKUP’ criteria, as follows:

  • Business Orientation 
  • Application capability
  • Knowledge of subject 
  • Understanding demonstrated
  • Persuasion & Presentation

Your tutor will discuss these criteria in greater detail, and the attached appendix identifies indicative content for the (pass, merit & distinction).grade levels 

Performance against CIPD ‘BAKUP’ Criteria:



Fail (under 30)

Refer (30- 50)

Pass ( 50 – 59)

Merit (60 – 69)

Distinction (70-100)


Understanding demonstrated

Shows   no understanding of concepts and little organisation

Shows   little understanding of key concepts, requirements

Little   definition or organisation of information

Shows basic understanding of theories, concepts, issues   surrounding a topic,

Some definition of terms & topic analysis using models

Provides   definition & analysis of topic and issues

Some   appreciation of complexity of topic

Identifies   models and provides rationale for use

Provides   detailed critical analysis of the issues.

Appreciates   & manages complexities of a topic.

Uses   multiple perspectives & models appropriately, with justification


Business Orientation

Business   issues not considered

Lack   of appreciation of the wider business issues to be addressed

Identifies problems, barriers and issues within organisational   environment

Presents   some analysis of the wider context of a topic.

Identifies   limits of available information & identifies further requirements

Detailed   evaluation of the implications of wider context. Evaluates limits of   information within situation and reviews options to supplement information.


Application capability

Does   not show awareness of which models might be applied

Shows   limited awareness of models

Does   not apply these adequately

Uses some models, concepts or benchmarking for analysis of a   topic and draws key conclusions for application

Appropriate   use of models, benchmarks demonstrating systematic use information to draw   conclusions.

Aware   of limits of application in context, some recommendations as appropriate.

Shows   original, comprehensive evaluation of information thorough & realistic   analysis.

Effective   application in given context with justified & appropriate recommendations


Knowledge of subject

Demonstration   of knowledge inadequate

Little   information presented

Limited   knowledge demonstrated.

Lack   of information included on which to base analysis

Shows basic knowledge of subject with some supporting   information & research

Knowledge   of subject supported by external respected sources. Limitations of knowledge   recognised

Current   and well-researched information included

Critiqued   with realistic appreciation of complexity




Required   academic structure lacking

Not   persuasive presentation

Poor   structure & use of information

Poor   spelling, grammar and/or referencing

Limited   attempt to analyse or persuade

Presents information clearly

Uses format required

Correct spelling, grammar & referencing

Persuades through written means

Clear   and succinct presentation

Appropriate   use of format

Good   spelling, grammar & referencing

Persuasively   presented with supporting information

Presents   information purposefully to add value.

Good   professional presentation.

Persuasive   communication in any proposal, fully   supported

Respiratory virsues (airborne and droplet)


Start with discussing respiratory viruses (airborne and droplet) and the dangers they pose and hence the need for diagnoses and treatment measures for such diseases

Then discuss masks: how they are used now on a daily basis such as managing disease spread and in the medical field as well as how they are used in diagnosing diseases (sampling masks)

Discuss traditional ways of diagnosing respiratory diseases like covid and TB (using sputum, pcr testing etc) and how this compares in terms of accuracy and how early they can detect viruses to sampling masks.

The evolution of sampling masks throughout history and what current research is done on them/ further areas that have not yet been researched

Discuss different types of masks with emphasis on the ones used in diagnosis (e.g. duckbilled masks), what materials these masks are made from and the material’s impact on the environment.

The manufacturing process of current sampling masks used and cost if possible and ways that this can be improved (?)

what are the alternative materials these masks can be made out of in order to reduce its cost and/or environmental impact.

Sample Solution

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The Burning Platform and Experimentation


Start by reading the items below.
• “The Burning Platform at MIHS” (Eller Case)

• Shadley, S. (2014). Prop 480 Proposes to Build A New Hospital In Maricopa County. 91.5 KJZZ: https://kjzz.org/content/58897/prop-480-proposes-build-new-hospital-maricopa-county

This week, your readings in Kouzes and Posner have been all about “challenging the process” – this is through searching for opportunities (Chapter 7), experimenting, and taking risks (Chapter 8). Such activities are particularly critical when it comes to saving a failing organization. Your case this week focuses on the “burning platform” that previously characterized Maricopa Integrated Health System (if you are interested, you should check out the MIHS website here: https://mihs.org/). Stephen Purves (who still runs MIHS: https://www.mihs.org/about-mihs/) received a financial break when Prop 480 passed, but it was clear that this money would not be enough to turn a struggling MIHS around. Turning around MIHS would require thinking outside the box, innovating, and experimenting across all levels of the organization.

Please read the case and listen/read the KJZZ article that covers Prop 480 (I might recommend listening first, then reading the case). After you have processed the materials, your case write-up this week should answer the following questions (response 1 page maximum, Times New Roman, size 12, single-spaced, 1” margins):

  1. Thinking of the lecture discussion on creating learning organizations from Amy Edmondson (to re-watch, go to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUP4WcfNyAA), what steps did Purves take to create a learning organization at MIHS? Please provide specific examples, and why they were effective in your view. Do you think the steps taken at MIHS are adaptable to other healthcare organizations? Why or why not?
  2. What role does motivation play in the success of the 100-day workouts that were used at MIHS? Do you think that certain people would be less incentivized to participate? And, if they are less incentivized, is it problematic that people are turning over because they don’t agree with the new direction of MIHS? What do you think your own personal receptivity/motivation would be to participate in these workouts?
  3. At the end of the case, Steve Purves states the following when asked whether MIHS will cease their 100-day workouts: “Why would they end? When you have people working together to identify and rapidly test ideas that generate value – increasing quality and decreasing cost –why would you ever take your foot off of the accelerator?” Can you think of reasons why it might be advantageous to cease the workouts? Should there be modifications made to the workout program? Or, would you encourage staying with the current structure with the MIHS workouts? Explain your response

Sample Solution

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f486t finance 100 original quality work 1


Resource: The previously completed budgeting spreadsheet (ATTACHMENT)


Create the financial portion of the strategic plan. The plan must include 3 years of Cash flow statements, using information provided in attachment.

Create 3 more years of cash flow statements for 2012, 2013, & 2014

  • Cash Flow statements

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How To Write A Literary Analysis: A Complete Guide (2021)


What Is Literary Analysis?

Similar to Lab Reports, Literary Analysis essays should be mastered by STEM students.

However, this task is less complicated and more engaging than lab reports because they develop skills you can utilize during college studies and real-life!

The aim of literary analysis papers is clear and straightforward: analyze literature pieces after being taught how to evaluate them.

This paper will help the writer find a true sense when reading their favourite stories or books, whether it’s old school classics like Harry Potter or modern-day hits such as Fifty Shades Trilogy.

The point of the book and its meaning is up to you.

Literary analysis is a tool for understanding what symbols were used to know how different readers may have interpreted them throughout history.

An academic review can help analyse literature, but it doesn’t tell us all that we would need to know when doing so with an essay like this one on The Great Gatsby.

How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay

As this task’s main point is to conduct a meaningful text analysis, your first step should be reading the text carefully.

Your work under literary analysis will be more accessible if you highlight significant points and other essential aspects while reading.

It may take some time before coming up with an insightful thesis statement, but careful thought during writing can help!

To write a solid literary analysis, you must understand the entire book.

There are many ways to go about this, from ordering essay writing services on our website or asking your group mates for help in retelling what they know of the text with some creative freedom!

Literary Analysis Essay Outline

It would be so easy if all you had to do for an assignment were write a quick paragraph about your impressions of the book.

Life isn’t that simple, though, and freewriting will not cut it in college assignments.

You need specific sections with supporting analysis points, or they won’t get full credit on their papers!

It sounds like life can sometimes feel complicated when taking written work into consideration, especially since certain aspects may require more thought than others depending on how much time you have allotted yourself and what kind of paper needs to be completed (essay? literary critique?)

The introduction is the best way to hook your reader.

It’s also a place where you can make sure they know what this essay is about! Let me show you how in three steps:

  1. Introduce my topic and thesis statement (the main point of this paper). I’ll let them see it early so that they don’t get lost later when all those words start getting thrown around like crazy.
  2. State points from books or other sources proving why my position makes sense – to make arguments strong, we need good evidence for our ideas.
  3. Tell them one thing more before closing off with an ending sentence. This will seal the deal because now readers are totally hooked.

Step 1. Thesis Statement

A thesis statement is the first sentence of your essay, and it’s where you introduce what you will discuss the subject matter.

It can either confirm or deny a particular point so that readers know exactly where to look for supporting evidence in your paper, as well as get an idea of how they’ll feel about reading more of your research.

An excellent way to come up with a vital topic when writing literary analysis essays is by picking one that reflects personal opinions on different perspectives from their own life experiences. This makes argumentation easy because every idea has at least some common ground among differing points-of-view which strengthens an articulate position without being preachy.”

Step 2. Main Body

You might think that in literary analysis essays, a different structure would be applied. However, it is essential to make your arguments as convincing as possible by providing enough evidence and making sure all claims refer to the thesis statement.

The body of your paper should contain three major sections: introduction (where you establish an argument), middle section with supporting facts or examples from text/literary critic’s review), conclusion (to summarize what has been said).

Sometimes, the text can be hard to define which parts are definite proof of your points.

So don’t forget that literary devices used in a book have motives and deeper meanings, while they might lead you to understand what the author was trying to say.

You should also pay attention not only to metaphors but other figures as well; there is no shortage on this list – allusions, alliterations (think about The Catcher in Rye), hyperboles (exaggerating people’s emotions or actions) and antithesis (a figure where two differing ideas oppose each other).

Keeping track of stylistic devices when reading through any piece, including these few simple ones mentioned above, will help uncover different aspects within them!

Step 3. How to End a Literary Analysis Essay 

Many people find the conclusion to be one of the most challenging parts of writing a paper.

But actually, it’s not! Your job is to summarize your key arguments and show how they relate to your thesis statement from earlier in the essay.

To write an effective conclusion, you needn’t make any new conclusions as all points have been made already; this means that if somebody were reading through what you’ve written so far, they shouldn’t have any unanswered questions about what has just been said – only answers.

The formula for knowing when you’re done with an excellent concluding paragraph is:

if there are no more points left over, then the reader should still feel satisfied at having read everything even though some things may seem unclear.

Step-by-step Guidelines for Literary Analysis Essay Writing

In many college classrooms, professors fail to provide enough guidance for their students.

They often assign a writing task without explaining how it should be done or providing any sources of information on the topic.

The result is that some students don’t know where to find helpful resources and are unclear about what they’re supposed to do with an essay/literary analysis; others can’t figure out the format required to finish up successfully on their own time frame–without cheating by finding “help” online through someone else’s instructions.

One way around this obstacle may be taking advantage of professional services designed specifically for such purposes as finishing essays quickly (and getting good grades).

  • Carefully read the source material (book, newspaper, etc.)
  • Follow the steps that have been provided.
  • Make sure your essay is formatted correctly (MLA, APA, Harvard, or Chicago).
  • Consider a compelling thesis statement.
  • Make a plan for your literary analysis essay.
  • Prepare your article by your strategy;

After you’ve completed writing, go through your content with a fine-toothed comb to make sure it’s error-free.

For an ad, give your essay to a parent, a friend, or a classmate.

Academic Style of Literary Analysis Essay

Essay writing would be way more manageable if you didn’t always have to follow strict formatting requirements as set by your professor.

Literary essays should be written in an academic style and often require good use of grammar, but there are times when having such limitations can become tedious.

For example, sometimes it’s hard not to include any slang or informal language even though this kind of thing isn’t seen much on the pages that most literary analysis papers end up being published under.

Unfortunately for those who try their best to adhere strictly to these guidelines, they will get a C before anything else, no matter how great they wrote their paper unless every last detail was accounted for perfectly, which rarely happens because nobody has to time enough patience!

The Bottom Line

Writing a literary analysis is an essential skill that anyone who studies philology or linguistics should master.

It will help you in high school, college, and your future career and daily life.

Everywhere we go, from books to television shows, there are works of literature all around us; being able to analyze how these pieces work can really show what the author was trying to say with their music and make it more engaging for readers by revealing hidden meanings through stylistic devices such as irony.


ISOM 313 Questions 1 answer below »


The take home final exam for ISOM313 will require you to Address the following topics and questions. Each response should be one page in length. General: What is systems analysis and design? Describe its importance, purpose, and the system life cycle. Additionally, your discussion should include the cross life cycle activities of System Analysis and Design. (20 points) Systems Analysis: Provide a more detailed discussion of systems analysis. Discuss the phases of the system development process that are analysis based.

Essay Question Words: “Critically Evaluate/Review.”


What does it mean to evaluate something or provide a critical review critically?

These terms are complicated, but we will help you understand them.

Typically, the word “critical” has a negative connotation. Being asked to write “critically doesn’t necessarily mean you need to be negative; instead, voicing logical opinions based on evidence evaluation is critical.

When writing a “critically evaluate’” or providing a ‘critical review,’ the first lesson is that there will always be some description element.

But don’t let this stop you from building on your reports to justify what point you’re trying to make! Let’s go through some examples:

Descriptive writing- How to Critically Evaluate

Descriptive writing is a way to focus on the four ‘W’s questions.

What are you describing? Where does it take place? Who else might be there, and when did this happen, if applicable.

What am I trying to describe here? Where do I have time/space for my story or scene to unfold in as much detail as possible (where)?

The goal of essay components is to convey essential information about the main idea.

Still, if you stop there, you only have a descriptive piece that does not meet the standards for criticality.

Critical writing

Critical writing is an opportunity to go beyond the mundane and take a closer look at what you see.

It’s not enough for someone to tell us how they feel or what happened, we ask them why it mattered so much then, and in turn, that will give us insight into their future actions.

Managing the descriptive and critical Writing

There are many ways to write an essay, but there is a lot of expectation when writing in English.

For the reader to be satisfied that you have completed a critical review or critical evaluation, make sure they get what they expect!

In the first step, read the article/piece of work that you will be critically evaluating.

It can often feel like, just because something has been published in an academic journal or magazine, it’s a perfect piece of writing and cannot possibly be questioned, but this isn’t always true.

The author made certain decisions during the research and writing process, which should only make us ask more questions about their findings and the conclusions they’ve come up with.

The importance of research methodology is that it helps to identify the strengths and weaknesses in a study.

For example, did you know there are two main sections where this information can be found?

They’re called “methodology” and “discussion.”

In the section on methodologies, authors will have made certain decisions about answering their questions.

There may also be other factors like context or instruments (e.g., questionnaire).

Perhaps one way we might determine whether these choices affect what’s being studied would by looking at sample size – if it seems too small for an accurate representation, maybe some changes need to be made!

For example, a sample of 260 undergraduate students might be considered quite significant in the United States.

However, suppose they are all from Pakistan, and their circumstances do not apply to those studying at universities like Oxford or Cambridge.

In that case, this is just one case showing that it’s essential for people who study psychology to think about how certain situations may differ critically.

A critical evaluation is a way to demonstrate that you can think critically and reflect on what the author wrote.

You should question everything around you, from research studies to this article itself!

This will help understand why they chose these words instead of others or how relevant their argument could be applied elsewhere.

No one has all the correct answers – it’s up to us as individuals who want more knowledge about our world, so we are better equipped for whatever lies ahead.


NETWORKING: A KEY TO SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORKA. Consider the different teams presented in your reading…


NETWORKING: A KEY TO SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORKA. Consider the different teams presented in your reading assignment. How do the teams manage their team boundaries? What are the trade-offs between interna


A.     Consider the different teams presented in your reading assignment. How do the teams manage their team boundaries? What are the trade-offs between internal cohesion and external ties within each type of team? Support your discussion with at least two (2) external sources.

B.     Consider the list of common roles for team members which of these roles do you think you play in your own team or group? Why?

Note: Please use APA format through out and each part has to be 2pages(NO plagiarism). 


Focus On Directive Essay Words: “Elaborate” (2021 Guide)


What does it really mean to elaborate

The answer to this question is twofold.

On the one hand, elaboration is an essential part of writing and can help a writer make her point by providing additional details or clarifying what she means with fewer words.

On the other hand, too much detail in an essay that’s short may lead it nowhere but repetition or duplication without any evaluative components at all.

Yet, for novice writers who don’t know how to provide enough detail while still making their points clear, there are guidelines they should follow: avoid giving excessive description (although some level of descriptive language might be necessary) and keep your focus where you want readers’ attention directed based on whether you’re trying to prove something (“this”) about someone else’s argument/claims (“that”).

The author of the passage believes that elaboration should be placed toward the end but sometimes towards halfway through.

The justification for this is because it’s difficult to elaborate on something you haven’t already defined.

Sufficiency and relatedness are two elements necessary to create a successful essay with appropriate content and output quality.

It can be challenging when creating an introduction as well as body paragraphs if not enough time has been allotted or there isn’t much knowledge on what needs to go into these sections; however, once all points have been made, then bringing them together comes naturally at the conclusion without difficulty due to its sufficiency!

Contrary to popular belief, there is more than meets the eye in expository writing.

Not only should your purpose be clear and your audience persuaded, but credible points need to be made as well.

The essay may have met word count requirements, but it has not yet reached its full potential without quality content present – this means that all of a writer’s hard work will go unnoticed if they do not continue striving for excellence.

Quality is a vital component of relatedness.

When we discuss the quality relating to elaboration, we focus on how well-written these details are and if they will strengthen our argument.

Good writers include relevant information in their papers; great writers do this even better by only including essential pieces that can go into more detail about the main topic being discussed, so readers have a clearer idea of where you’re going with your thoughts.

Whether it’s precise starts from a solid initial premise.

When people write, it takes time to develop those points that mean any deviation could be seen as unfocused, leading back up again to having suitable premises.

One way to provide enough quality is to ensure that the essay can be read by both those within your subject area and outside.

Whenever someone reads a draft, they will want specific questions answered for their reading experience to be more fulfilling and less confusing.

Some basic ‘we questions will do this like who, what, where, or when because these answer all of the necessary details about any given topic.

Characters in a novel are the lifeblood of creating an immersive story.

The language associated with elaboration should relate to explaining their feelings and thoughts, thus painting sensory descriptions within the paper.

Narrative essays also use this writing style to describe scenes that readers can visualize as if they were watching them unfold on screen or reading about it from someone else’s point-of-view in nonfiction textbooks.

In narrative writing, a writer can employ different techniques to make their story more engaging.

When dealing with physical states, your goal as the author is to elaborate on what things in the story sound like and feel like through similes and metaphors that express these qualities.

For example: “The water was so cold it felt solid against my skin” or “She looked at me again before coming closer.”

The latter sentence uses dialogue – something not possible when describing actions usually told from the third-person point of view without descriptions of emotions and thoughts present for a good reason –to show how she feels about him based on her look alone.

It is not enough to give your opinion.

To be a good writer, you need facts and statistics to back up what you are saying, and examples of the points you’re making for anyone reading it will understand better.

Again, this goes back to quantity versus quality: It’s not just about how many sources or citations there are but also whether those sources have something relevant they can offer on the topic at hand.

Finding a good source of information and then distilling it down into its most essential points is the key.

It’s necessary for those who wish to be successful at research and anyone else trying not to drown in their daily lives with all that they have going on.

A few practical ways would include selective reading – which means picking out only what you want from an article or book instead of skimming through everything- as well as being vigilant about using summary skills when needed.

Informational writing can be both easy and challenging.

For some people, they’re just all about the numbers; for others, wordiness is their thing!

We’ve discussed how it’s essential to be an articulate writer with these tips for what elaboration means.

A great writer knows a balance between the quantity and quality of their writing, making sure they give ample examples so their audience can follow along easily while crafting short but impactful passages.

In narrative essays, details come in character development or plot progression; you could also use facts/statistics as your detail when presenting arguments or instructional topics.

Finally, make sure to learn all about research!


i attached the paper from which you will take the theme is only one page single spaced 1


66 unread replies.66 replies.

For the AP Proposal, you will propose your topic and get feedback from your peers–and you will, of course, provide feedback as well.

In your Proposal, you will:

  • Define the approach you plan to take in the AP (whether advocating for & offering evidence of solutions, or exploring how/why current solutions do not work, etc.)
  • Explain what you already know about the solution(s) and/or your argument, relying on at least three reliable sources that you will quote and cite accordingly.
  • Explain what else you need to learn or understand about the topic–what else you want to find out.
  • Address any potential naysayers to your position. Remember, the AP allows you to take a strong, evidence-based position that you believe your reader(s) should implement. In order for your reader to feel convinced by your argument, it will be important for you to consider any objections they may have.

Proposals should be at least one full page, single-spaced. They should be formatted like a memo, as before–use whatever subheadings make sense to you.

When you have submitted that, please respond at length (like, a nice, full paragraph at least!) to at least ONE of your peers. Your response should:

  • Explain any specific information, points, or sources that are especially convincing
  • Ask specific questions that you, most likely an unfamiliar reader, still have about the solution(s) presented in the Proposal, AND/OR the writer’s argument (remember, some writers will be arguing that the solution(s) they’re talking about don’t work!)
  • Explain anything that you would like to know more about
  • Offer at least one additional source, from either the Think Tank database or the Library’s databases, that your peer might find useful.

That’s right! You’re going to go back into the Think Tanks OR the Library’s databases and find one additional source that you think aligns with the argument or topic that your peer has articulated in their proposal. You will provide the link and/or the source information, along with a very brief explanation of why you think that source might help.

  • Note: this does not mean you have to read an entire 60-page scholarly article. In fact, please don’t! A brief look at the Abstract, Intro, and Conclusion will usually be enough for you to recognize whether or not it fits with your peer’s approach. The point here is not to find the very best possible source, but rather to be a part of the conversation, and to help your peers see what their readers think of as “relevant” to their topics. Some you might be surprised by the sources you get!